Morality in Fours and Fives

At about age five, children move up to a new level of morality. They have a better understanding of the concept of consequences – cause and effect, if/then. They know they can be the cause of positive effects or negative effects. They can cause someone to laugh or to cry, and they generally know which […]

Morality in Twos and Threes

As Eric Erikson pointed out, will is the strength that should develop at ages 2 and 3 years. That’s both good news and challenging news. It’s good news because it’s a sign that toddlers are maturing. It’s challenging news because it means they are now aware that they can make deliberate choices. With deliberate choices […]

Morality in Infants: Birth to Two

“We do not develop into the image of God; we are the image of God.” – James R. Estep, Jr., Christian Formation – Infants are born already having the internal capacity and sensibility for the development of an inner moral compass. But they are also born completely egocentric, which is the lowest stage of morality. […]

The Basic Elements of Wayfinding: Values, Faith, and Morals

“Show me the way I should go, for to you I lift up my soul.” – Psalm 143:8 – When it comes to making our way in life, few things are more important than our values, our faith, and our morals. These three influence our choices and determine the paths we take. So how do […]